Tuesday, September 27, 2016

American History 101: The Preparedness Day Bombing

In 1916, the people of the United States were happily ensconced in their comfortable isolationism.  Americans spent their days hearing of the carnage, death and dismemberment taking place in Europe and their evenings shaking their heads at the horrors.  As 1916 droned on, it became increasingly clear the the American government that staying out of the fray was quickly becoming more of a fantasy.  But even as the government inched closer towards involvement, the western portion of the United States -- particularly California -- remained devout in their isolationist thoughts.  From the radical Industrial Workers of the World to the mainstream labor leaders, the push to stay neutral was strong.  By the middle of 1916, the rise of Bolshevism and labor unrest made San Francisco's business leaders uneasy.  In response to the unrest, the Chamber of Commerce organized The Preparedness Day Parade to boost spirits and combat the ideas of the anti-establishment unions.  The parade was supposed to celebrate the imminent entry of the United States into World War I.



This parade was held on July 22, 1916, and was the target of radical groups from the moment it was announced.  In early July of 1916, an antiwar pamphlet was circulated that included statements such as, "we are going to use a little direct action on the 22nd to show that militarism can't be forced on us and our children without a violent protest."  And as promised, a suitcase bomb was detonated in the middle of the parade killing ten people and wounding forty.  This stands today as the worst attack of its type in San Francisco's history.

There are many parallels to today's terrorist attacks in the execution and fallout from the event.  The attack in a publicized event that took the lives of innocent people is something that we have certainly seen plaguing our country in recent years.  The story generally goes something like this: a person or persons attacks a public event (like a movie or marathon), and there is great pressure on authorities to find the person(s) responsible.  Once the perpetrators are identified, very little stops the conviction from moving forward.  This is similar to what happened in San Francisco.  After the bombing, the police had to bring someone to justice.  In this case, Thomas Mooney and Warren Billings were the two who were identified and arrested.  These two both had a prior history of militant socialism and direct activism.  Billings was previously convicted of carrying dynamite on a passenger train, and Mooney had been arrested (but not convicted) of conspiracy to destroy power lines in 1913 during a Pacific Gas and Electric strike. 

As expected, Mooney and Billings were both quickly convicted and sentenced to death by hanging.  By 1918 a commission was set up by President Woodrow Wilson, and the commission found there was no real evidence against him Mooney.  As such, they commuted his sentence from death to life in prison.  For a conviction with no evidence -- he was still sentenced to life in prison.  Again in 1939, California Governor Culbert Olson examined the evidence in the case and found that the trial was rife with perjury, false testimony and fabricated "facts" in order to secure the conviction.  Olson pardoned both men at this time.  Mooney was immediately released, and Billings remained in prison until 1961.

To this day, the actual perpetrators of The Preparedness Day Bombing remain unknown.


~~~
Bruce holds a degree in Computer Science from Temple University, a Graduate Certificate in Biblical History from Liberty University, a Masters Degree in American History at American Public University and is a member of the Historical Studies Honor Society.    He has worked in educational technology for over 20 years, specializes in building infrastructures for schools that work to support the mission of technology in education in the classroom.  He also has served as a classroom teacher in Computer Science, History and English classes.  


Be on the lookout for Towering Pines Volume Two: The Sound and the Fury which is currently a work in progress.

Bruce is the author of five books: Sands of TimeTowering Pines Volume One:Room 509The Star of ChristmasPhiladelphia Story: A Lance Carter Detective Novel and The Insider's Story: A Lance Carter Detective Novel

Saturday, August 27, 2016

American History 101: The Culper Ring and the Revolution

Happy Almost End of Summer Readers!

As the summer draws to a close I am forced to look back and take stock at what I've accomplished this summer.  I have clearly not accomplished a lot of blogging, but I have made some serious headway on the Towering Pines Series.  In conjunction with Boojum Audio and Seth Williams, the audio book for Towering Pines Volume One: Room 509 has finally been released.  If you are an audiophile, like I am, be sure and pick it up!  Not into audiobooks?  That is OK because Towering Pines is also available in paperback, Amazon Kindle and Apple iBooks formats!  Something for everyone, indeed!


I bet you are wondering:  Does Towering Pines tie in with today's BLOG post?  You bet it does!  Today's BLOG centers on The Culper Ring.  And for those who have read Towering Pines Volume One, you know the story hinges on the fictional history of a military school that actually existed and was rooted in the real history of the United States and the Civil War.  Well, Towering Pines Volume Two is steeped in the rich history of the United States and reaches back into the American Revolution and how it lives on throughout the War of 1812, Civil War and even into World War II.  And so I give you today's topic: The Culper Ring.


Late in 1776 British forces occupied New York City and its surrounding territory.  General George Washington knew that if the colonists had any hope of winning the war, New York was the key.  And the key to controlling New York was intelligence.  In September of 1776, Washington began to form the basis for American intelligence gathering.  He sent the young and inexperienced but ambitious Nathan Hale into New York and Long Island to gather intelligence for the war effort.  Unfortunately, Hale was captured and publicly executed by the British on September 22, 1776.  When news of Hale's execution reached Washington he was sickened by it.  He lamented in a letter that the death of Hale was a "terrible waste of a young life."  The death of Hale soured Washington on the idea of spying for a number of reasons, not the least of which was that he did not feel that they were capable of building a spy effort that would not waste more lives with little to no benefit.

But as the ware continued to be a series of engagements in which Washington's best skill was falling back and living to fight another day, he knew more had to be done -- and that intelligence was at the heart of that need.  And as Washington retreated from Brandywine and impotent to do nothing to prevent the fall of Philadelphia, he knew something had to be done.  After a winter of licking his wounds at Valley Forge, securing the assistance of Baron von Steuben and a convincing stalemate at Monmouth Courthouse, Washington pushed once more for intelligence. 


Late in 1778, the British were preparing to leave Philadelphia when the General Clinton realized that they could not defend both Philadelphia and New York, he ordered British forces to leave Philadelphia and help reinforce New York.  This emboldened Washington after he received a letter from Lieutenant Caleb Brewster in Connecticut with an offer to spy on and report on enemy movements in the area.  by August of 1778, Washington was receiving useful information from Brewster including a report on British troops moving towards Newport, Rhode Island.  Washington was excited and invigorated by these reports from Brewster, and he assigned General Charles Scott to handle Brewster and find additional spies in the area.  This was also the point at which Washington recruited (then) Major Benjamimn Tallmadge.  Tallmadge began to deliver the bulk of the useful information to Washington and was quickly given the responsibility for building and managing the new spy network.

Tallmadge recruited Abraham Woodhull of Setauket on Long Island as a main contact for Brewster.  And in a dinner with Tallmadge and Washington on August 25, 1778, he was officially engaged as a spy.  It was at that dinner that the now infamous names were given to Woodhull and Tallmadge -- Samuel Culper, Sr. and Samuel Culper, Jr.  The names were given to recognize the need for anonymity within the ring, but also common enough to be recognized by other spies -- it was taken from Culpeper County in Virginia.  At this point, Scott was still involved but only as oversight.  However, by October of 1778 it became clear that he lacked the desire to run the spy ring and Tallmadge disagreed with how Scott operated.  After the loss of three spies, Tallmadge was given control of the spy ring - and the Culper Ring was officially born.

The ring operated successfully from late 1778 through 1783, and once it was established engaged six key spies: Abraham Woodhull, Robert Townsend, Caleb Brewster, Austin Row and the unknown female Agent 355.  The actual identity of Agent 355 remains unknown today, however it is thought that is might be Anna Strong, Sarah Horton Townsend or Elizabeth Burgin.  Is it also thought that Agent 355 was nothing more than a misreading of Woodhull's letters.  Either way, the "Secret Six", as they are sometimes referred to, were an integral part of the success of the American Revolution.  In addition to the six core members, it is known that Hercules Mulligan and Cato were key in spying efforts.  Mulligan, a friend of Alexander Hamilton and tailor to the British in New York, was key to delivering information from within the city since British soldiers became very chatty while being fitted for their uniforms.  And since soldiers did not think anything of slaves, Mulligan's slave assistant Cato was also useful in this role.  Because of the amount of useful information, and risks to his own well-being (and his family's) Mulligan is often referred to as a Culper sub-agent.

The key to the Culper Ring's successes during the war was its devotion not only to secrecy, but to continuing to develop new methods of cloaking their activities.  The ring was so devoted to secrecy that Washington himself did not know the identities of the individuals in the spy ring outside of Tallmadge and Woodhull during the war.  Each operative, including Washington, was given a code number.  And various activities and locations were given code numbers, as well.  The spy ring would publish encoded articles in newspapers and write their letters to one another using this code and information in between the lines of the letters with their "sympathetic stain."   The "sympathetic stain" was an invisible ink that the Culper Ring developed, and letters that contained the ink would always have the letters "ST" scrawled at the bottom.  Another method devised to ensure the safety of his spies, Washington ordered that all letters be delivered using a dead-drop when at all possible.  This was a system of locations and times that letters would be left by one operative and then picked up by another.  The death of Nathan Hale is partially responsible for Washington's dedication to secrecy and safety.


Learn More about The Culper Ring


~~~
Bruce holds a degree in Computer Science from Temple University, a Graduate Certificate in Biblical History from Liberty University, a Masters Degree in American History at American Public University and is a member of the Historical Studies Honor Society.    He has worked in educational and technology for over 18 years, specializes in building infrastructures for schools that work to support the mission of technology in education in the classroom.  He also has served as a classroom teacher in Computer Science, History and English classes.  


Be on the lookout for Towering Pines Volume Two: The Sound and the Fury which is currently a work in progress.

Bruce is the author of five books: Sands of TimeTowering Pines Volume One:Room 509The Star of ChristmasPhiladelphia Story: A Lance Carter Detective Novel and The Insider's Story: A Lance Carter Detective Novel

Monday, August 1, 2016

American History 101: The Election of 1860 and Lincoln as a 3rd Party Candidate

Recently, this meme of Abraham Lincoln has been floating around Facebook.  It shows a very familiar portrait of Abraham Lincoln with the words, "This is what happens when you waste your vote on a 3rd party candidate."  The point of the meme is to illustrate that it is possible to rock the status quo in Washington and make the government do the will of the people.  We can debate all night long on whether the election of Abraham Lincoln was good for the people of this land and for the civil liberties of the enslaved, or if he was no more than a statist dictator who would impose his will on the people whether they liked it or not -- I am happy to engage in that debate.  But there are several things about America in 1860, the political climate and the status of the Republican Party at that time that can not be debated.

Many folks on Facebook are quick to point out that Abraham Lincoln was not a 3rd party candidate because he was a Republican.  Let's take a look at that, and see where it comes out.

The Republican Party was founded in 1854 by disjointed members of the quickly unraveling Whig Party.  It was formed in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.  The Kansas-Nebraska Act effectively overturned the Missouri Compromise of 1820.  The Missouri Compromise had previously drawn a line in the sand that said no new states north of a certain line would be admitted to the Union as slave states.  In essence, it meant that no new states would be slave states.  The Kansas-Nebraska Act was a response to the upheaval that was artificially created by southern slave owners who thought that new states should be able to choose for themselves if slavery would be legal or not.  The Kansas-Nebraska Act passed, and the states were allowed to choose for themselves.  In an election that was rife with corruption and people who would come from neighboring slave states to ensure Kansas' entry as a slave state -- slavery won the day.  As a response to this abomination of an election, the cast offs from the anti-slavery Whig Party formed a new party to combat slavery: the Republican Party.

In 1856, the newly minted Republican Party ran their first Presidential Candidate: John Fremont.  Fremont did very well for an upstate winning 11 states and 114 electoral votes.  And by 1860, the Democrats and slave owners knew that the Republicans would pose a real threat to the Oval Office.  They were so afraid that a Republican would win and abolish slavery, that the slave states threatened to secede should Lincoln win.  The threat stood in spite of the Republican candidates numerous guarantees that he had no inclination to abolish slavery and his statement in 1858 that said, "our frame of government, the States which have slavery are to retain it, or surrender at their own pleasure; and that all others---individuals, free-states and national government--are constitutionally bound to leave them alone about it."   In addition to the new Republican threat, the Democratic party was having its own issues.  Many southern democrats thought that not only was Stephen Douglas too moderate on slavery, but that he had no chance of beating Lincoln.  This, and other issues, led to the fracturing of the Democratic party -- and the introduction of the Southern Democratic Party.  The SDP sent John Breckinridge as its nominee for President in 1860.  The Whig Party, a once dominant political force, had all but disbanded but 1860 -- and what was left was rebranded the Constitutional Union Party and they nominated John Bell as their candidate.  So the election of 1860 can be seen as featuring two bruise major parties (Democrat and Constitutional Union) against two upstart minor parties (Republican and Southern Democrat).  This scenario is very much like the election of 2016 where the wounded Democrat and Republican parties are fielding half baked candidates against two strong minor party candidates in the Libertarian and Green parties.


With the fracturing of the country along the lines of slavery and the rights of states to choose their own laws, the political system was fractured, as well.  And in this historic election we say one major theme bubble to the surface: that voting for a minor party can change the fate of the nation, and the world.  The election of Abraham Lincoln was not the result of a fractured Democratic Party.  In fact, if you combined Douglas, Breckenridge and Bell's votes all together Lincoln still wins the Presidency.  The election was a landslide.  It was the people of the United States saying loud and clear that Abraham Lincoln was the President they wanted, and that will would not be denied.

Before 1860, four different political parties had held the Presidency.  And if you count George Washington, who did not hold a party affiliation, it was five.  Since 1860, there have only been two parties with one notable exception -- Andrew Johnson in 1864 was a National Union Party member (and terrible President!).  So, even if we accept that in 1860 Lincoln was a minor, or third party, candidate running against the Democrats and Whigs, it would be the last time in our nations history that something like that was possible.  After the Civil War America emerged as one nation who loved its newly emboldened central government, and continued to vote for it time and time again.  We have gotten to a point in this country where we vote against people and their ideas, instead for the person who best represents us, our interests and the interests of this country.  We have been doing it as a nation for so long, it is a wonder if we can change that pattern - and actually vote for something.

In 2016, you have the opportunity for the first time in a very long time to vote for a candidate who is not a Republican or a Democrat -- and is on the ballot in all 50 states.  Think about that -- and then think about the election of 1860 and what it did for America, slavery, civil rights and the future of our country.  And in November, vote your conscience -- and vote for someone, not against someone else.



~~~
Bruce holds a degree in Computer Science from Temple University, a Graduate Certificate in Biblical History from Liberty University and is working towards a Masters Degree in American History at American Public University.  He has worked in educational and technology for over 18 years, specializes in building infrastructures for schools that work to support the mission of technology in education in the classroom.  He also has served as a classroom teacher in Computer Science, History and English classes.  



Bruce is the author of five books: Sands of TimeTowering Pines Volume One:Room 509The Star of ChristmasPhiladelphia Story: A Lance Carter Detective Novel and The Insider's Story: A Lance Carter Detective Novel

Saturday, June 18, 2016

History 101: The Battle of Guadalcanal

I wanted to start this post off by apologizing for a general lack of BLOG activity since April.  I have been working hard on finishing my degree, have been working on producing the Audiobook for Towering Pines Volume One and have been working on a new novel.  The Towering Pines audiobook will be available in July so keep your eye out here for more information as it becomes available from Audible.  This week's post is on The Battle of Guadalcanal.  One of the projects I am working on is a research paper on this battle.  This post brings out some of the highlights of this research... Without further ado... The Battle of Guadalcanal.



        The Battle of Guadalcanal was a conflict that references the extended campaign of fighting via the land, sea and air between the Japanese and American forces.  The campaign took place between August 7, 1942 through February 9, 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theater.  This battle is notable for a couple of reasons.  The first of which is that it is considered the first major offensive by the Americans against the Japanese.  The second major reason this campaign was significant was because of the damage that the Americans inflicted on the Japanese war machine during this time.  And the third reason it is important is because in the end, it was a significant victory for the Americans as they pushed to turn the tide in the War of the Pacific in World War II.

The possession of Guadalcanal was a strategic advantage to whomever held it during the war.  From this spot in the Pacific the military could control sea lanes of communication which could help to turn the war towards one power or the other.  The Japanese landed on Guadalcanal on June 8, 1942 and quickly began to construct an air base.  However, two months later on August 7th the Americans embarked on the “Midnight Raid on Guadalcanal” and put an end to the Japanese control of the island.  The raiding force was aided by bad weather that prevented the Japanese patrols from spotting them ahead of time.  During the initial invasion the American forces split into two groups, one hitting Guadalcanal with the help of warship shelling and the other picking up other islands in the chain.  The land invasion consisted of 11,000 Marines hitting the shores with a tenacious attack.  After four days of intense fighting from the Japanese the American forces took the airfield from the Japanese.  This victory allowed America air superiority in the region.  But no sooner had the American forces put down roots at what they now called Henderson Air Base did the Japanese begin dropping bombs on Guadalcanal.  Not content to let the strategic position in the Pacific go, they also begin attacking from their position west of the air field from the Matanikau River.  Just before the Japanese offensive began, Allied forces had suffered a defeat at the nearby Battle of Salvo, which limited the air cover that caused Rear Admiral Turner to withdraw his his carrier and limit support to the island.

The Japanese counterattack effort was quick to mount, efficient and fierce.  The “Tokyo Express”, as it was called, was an efficient supply line that helped the Japanese build up their land based counter-offensive.  On September 12, Major General Kawaguchi launched an attack on the Allied position at Lunga Ridge, just south of Henderson field.  This served to augment the now almost daily air raids that the Japanese were performing on Allied positions.  But the American Marines were dug in and ready to defend, after two vicious nights of fighting the Marines repelled the Japanese forces.



Even though the Allies now controlled Henderson Field at Guadalcanal, they continued to fight over other
islands in the chain as a part of the campaign.  On September 18, Admiral Vandegrift received reinforcements and launched a heavy attack upon the island of Matanikau.  And even though the Japanese were successful in denying the Allies initial advances, the offensive ultimately resulted in heavy losses for the Japanese.  These losses resulted in the Japanese being unable to mount any offensive from the middle of September until the middle of October, including a planned offensive against the Lunga perimeter.  Given the overall importance of Henderson Field to both sides, the impact of this attack cannot be overstated.  

         But even with the successes of the Allies in deterring Japanese attacks, they could not stop them all together at this point in the campaign.  The Japanese were able able to mount a convoy and attack the main island and Henderson Field on October 14.  The Japanese were led by Admiral Yamamoto put two battleships on the task of shelling Henderson Field and destroying 48 of the 90 aircraft stationed at the air base.  The Allies responded quickly, replacing each of the destroyed aircraft and launched a counteroffensive which saw three cargo ships destroyed.  Even with these reinforcements, the Japanese continued to land troops and the attack on the island did not let up.  

         By the end of October the Japanese forces now numbered nearly 20,000 men at this point and redoubled their efforts against Henderson Field.  What is now called the Battle of Henderson Field was an intense volley of fighting that saw almost 3,000 Japanese men die, while not even 100 Americans lost their lives.  The severe difference in losses is attributed to bad intelligence.  It is thought that Lieutenant General Hyakutake had intelligence that told him that the American and Allied troops on Guadalcanal numbered around 10,000.  In reality, the Allied troops numbers were nearly 23,000.  Even though he had nearly 20,000 men himself, this large discrepancy in numbers can account for the relative slaughter that the Japanese ground troops walked into.  This defeat, coupled with Vice Admiral Halsey’s decisive victory at the nearby Battle of Santa Cruz Islands, signaled the last time aircraft carriers would be involved in direct conflict at Guadalcanal and momentum returning to the Allies.

          After the string of decisive victories, Admiral Vandegrift pushed forward with a new offensive across the Matanikau River to chase down the Japanese who remained on the island.  Hyakutake put the Tokyo Express resupply line into heavy work to build his forces up, and put up a defense against Vandegrift.  The Allies pushed the Japanese back for the first two days, but then the Allies encountered Japanese who were fortified near Koli Point.  After several days of fighting in early November American Marines took Koli Point from the Japanese.  This in conjunction with Lieutenant Colonel Larson’s Raider Battalion’s victory at Aola Bay helped push Hyakutake into a corner.  But with his position strengthened by good supplies, Hyakutake repelled several attacks between November 10th and 18th.

            The stalemate on land led to changes in tactics and leaders for the Allies.  The focus of the battle shifted from the land battle to the water.  The Japanese convoy began to move 7,000 troops to the island, and the Allies began to move in a similar manner.  Overnight November 12, 1943, American ships encountered the Japanese convoy and attacked.  The Japanese fought fiercely inflicting heavy damage on the Americans on the first night.  But the Japanese advantage did not last long, as the Americans took control of the hostilities on the second night and sunk seven of Admiral Tanaka’s eleven transports.  The remaining four did make landfall on November 15th.  Shortly after the troops made landfall, American air raids drove them back quickly.  This would be the last major offensive attempt by the Japanese.  And even with small victories such as Tassafaronga, the Americans were able to cut off the Japanese supply lines and push the Japanese into a desperate situation that ended with the decision to abandon the island.  This decision was received before December 31 by the Japanese leadership, but the troops on the island fought on well into the new year.  The Japanese did not leave Guadalcanal until February 7, 1943.

The Battle of Gudalcanal signaled the turning point of the Pacfiic War, and the last time that the Japanese would mount a major offensive against the Americans.  The toll the battle took on both sides was significant, but almost crippling for the Japanese.  The Allies lost nearly 7,100 men, 615 planes and 29 ships.  The Japanese lost 31,000 men with an additional 1,000 captured, over 800 planes and 38 ships.  The victory at Guadalcanal gave the Allies the strategic launching point in the Pacific for their future offensives against the Japanese, plus it hurt the Japanese ability to wage war significantly.


~~~
Bruce holds a degree in Computer Science from Temple University, a Graduate Certificate in Biblical History from Liberty University and is working towards a Masters Degree in American History at American Public University.  He has worked in educational and technology for over 18 years, specializes in building infrastructures for schools that work to support the mission of technology in education in the classroom.  He also has served as a classroom teacher in Computer Science, History and English classes.  



Bruce is the author of five books: Sands of TimeTowering Pines Volume One:Room 509The Star of ChristmasPhiladelphia Story: A Lance Carter Detective Novel and The Insider's Story: A Lance Carter Detective Novel